1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5
Dating back to the early 16th century, the Giuoco Piano is the oldest recorded chess opening. With the first move, both White and Black stake a claim of the center with their King pawns. In the second move White’s King knight simultaneously attacks the center and Black’s King pawn, while Black’s Queen knight also attacks the center and defends its King pawn. Then both White and Black move their King bisop’s to continue to build the pressure on the center and attack their opponent’s weak King bishop pawn. After just three moves White is ready to castle.
4.c3 – the Giuoco Piano Main Line – White’s prepares for the d4 pawn push to gain control of the center.